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Giant Monkey Tree Frog

Assignment 2 Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to help organize your thoughts for the paper and to ensure that you have done all the needed research prior to beginning the writing of the paper.

 

**Note: This is a hypothetical example to give you an idea of how to format your outline and include the required sections. It is not necessary to follow all parts of this outline, as it is an example. The bolded headings are required the rest of the headings and details will depend on your species and information found in reference sources.**

 

Assignment 2 Profile Outline: Giant Monkey Tree Frog

 

  1. Introduction
  2. Common and Scientific Names
  3. Common names: giant monkey tree frog. Also known as: blue and yellow frog, bicolored tree frog, giant monkey frog, giant leaf frog or waxy-monkey tree frog.
  4. Scientific name: Phyllomedusa bicolor
  5. Geographic Range
  6. Amazon Basin (Frost, 2009)
    1. Brazil
    2. Colombia
    3. Bolivia
    4. Peru
  7. Specific Location (Country, State, City)
  8. Brazil (Frost, 2009)
  9. Columbia
  10. Specific Location Biome
  11. Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest (de Paula Lima et al, 2010)
  12. Background and Description
  13. Not at risk of extinction. (Frost, 2009)
  14. Morphology
    1. Unique from similar frogs by a pupil that is vertically elliptical (Gagliardo, 2009)
    2. Nocturnal (Gagliardo, 2009)
    3. Males 91-103 mm, females 111-119 mm (Encyclopedia of Life)
    4. Dark green back with a white or cream belly (Encyclopedia of Life)
    5. Spots can be found all over the organism, especially on the flank and back legs (Encyclopedia of Life)
    6. Fingers are clear brown and have green adhesive discs (Encyclopedia of Life)
    7. Dark colored iris (Encyclopedia of Life)
  15. Physiology (Folger, 1995)
    1. Skin Pigments
      1. Protect against sun damage
      2. Help in camouflage to blend into trees
  • Regulate temperatures
  1. Various secretions help
    1. Retain water
    2. Prevent infection

 

  1. Life Cycle of the Organism
  2. Egg Mass
  3. Consist from anywhere of 10 – hundreds of eggs (Gagliardo, 2009)
  4. Released on leaves near waterways(Gagliardo, 2009)
  5. Eggs are rolled or folded into leaves with the aid of the male (Encyclopedia of Life)
  6. Tadpoles
  7. Mating and conception (Jeffries, 2003)
  8. Queen female enters breeding reception once a year during summer month
  9. Fall into water when they hatch after 8 – 10 days (Encyclopedia of Life)
  10. Larvae are free swimmers (Gagliardo, 2009)
  11. Length of time as a tadpole depends on the temperature, in general it is 6 – 10 weeks. (Venancio & Melo-Sampio, 2010).
  12. Life Expectancy ten years (Encyclopedia of Life)
  • Structure and Function
  1. Pupil that is vertically elliptical (Gagliardo, 2009)
  2. Adaptation found in species that are predators and are nocturnal or active at dawn and dusk. (Koryos, 2014)
  3. Adaptation evolved separately (Koryos, 2014)
  4. Skin adapted for survival in the Rainforest
    1. Unique skim pigments that protect against dehydration, infection and sun damage. (Gagliardo, 2009)
    2. Unique secretions that are used by indigenous people in rituals. (den Brave et al, 2014).
  5. Evolution
  6. Classification
    1. Some debate – can be classified differently depending on the source
    2. Lineage
    3. Animalia
    4. Chordata
    5. Amphibia
    6. Anura
    7. Hylidae
    8. Phyllomedusa
    9. Phyllomedusa bicolor
  7. DNA analysis indicates a close relationship between Pelodryadinae and Phyllomedusinae (Wiens, 2010).
  8. Fossil Information
    1. The earliest well documented amphibian is Ichthyostega, which dates back 363 mya. (Carroll, 1988).
    2. Frogs evolved about 200 mya. (Wells, 2010).
  9. Adaptation Pedal luring (Bertoluci, 2002)
  10. Additional Interest
  11. Ritual of Sapo (Kambo)
    1. “Kambo” is the common name for the Giant Tree Frog in Peru (den Brave et al, 2014)
    2. Skin secretion used by indigenous people of Peru as a lucky charm to improve hunting (Erspmaer et al, 1993) or to purify the body (den Brave et al, 2014).
    3. A healer will induce a burn on the right shoulder (in men) or the leg (in women) and skin secretions of the Giant tree frog are added to the burn. (den Brave et al, 2014).
    4. The active ingredient are several different peptides that act to excite nervous system in the flight or fight response (smooth muscle contraction, vasodilation, relaxation of arterial muscles as well as an inducement of an opiate- like response. (den Brave et al, 2014).
  12. Conclusion
  13. Phyllomedusa bicolor, known also as the giant tree frog, is a common frog found throughout the Amazon Rainforest.
  14. The giant tree frog has unique adaptations that allow protect against sun damage, prevent dehydration and combat infection.
  15. The giant tree frog has a life cycle common to many other frogs: egg, tadpole, mature frog.
  16. The giant tree frog has eyes with a vertical pupil.
  17. Frogs evolved over 200 million years ago.
  18. Indigenous people in Peru use skin secretions in rituals.

 

 

References

 

Bertoluci, J. (2002). Pedal luring in the leaf frog Phyllomedusa burmeisteri (Anura, Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae). Phylomedusa 1(2), 93 – 95.

Carroll, R. (1988). Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company.

den Brave, P., Bruins, E. & Bronkhorst, M. (2014). Phyllomedusa bicolor skin secretion and the Kambo ritual.  J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 20, 40 doi: 10.1186/1678-9199-20-40

Edson de Paula Lima, J., Rodder D. & Sole, M. (2010) Diet of two sympatric Phyllomedusa (Anura: Hylidae) species from a cacao plantation in southern Bahia, Brazil. North-Western Journal of Zoology. 6(1): 13 – 24.

Phyllomedusa bicolor Giant Leaf frog. (n.d.). In Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved from http://eol.org/pages/1048381/

Erspmaer, V., Erspamer, G., Severini, C., Potenza, R., Barra, D., Mignogna, G., & Bianchi, A. (1993). Pharmacological studies of “sapo’ from the frog Phyllomedusa bicolor skin: A drug used by the Peruvian Matses Indians in shamanic hunting practices.  Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8266343

Frost, D.R. (2009). Amphibian Species of the Word: An Outline Reference.  Version 5.3 (12 February 2009). Retrieved from http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/

Gagliardo, R. (2009). ABCM Specialty Taxa Husbandry Phyllomedusines (Leaf Frogs). Retrieved from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:BW4p1DueFzwJ:www.amphibianark.org/pdf/Husbandry/Husbandry%2520of%2520Phyllomedusines.pdf+&cd=8&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

Koryos (2014). The functions of different pupil shapes. Retrieved from  http://www.koryoswrites.com/nonfiction/the-functions-of-different-pupil-shapes/

Mendes Venancio, N. & Melo-Sampio P. (2010). Reproductive behavior of the Giant Leaf Frog Phyllomedusa bicolor (Anura: Hylidae) in the Western Amazon. Phyllomedusa 9(1): 63 – 67.

Wells, K. (2010). The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Wiens, J., Kuczynski, C., Hua, X., & Moen, D. (2010).  An expanded phylogeny of treefrogs (Hylidae) based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55, 871–882.

 

 

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